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热带雨林国家公园

保护成果
Conservation of the National Park of Hainan Tropical Rainforest

海南热带雨林国家公园位于海南岛中南部,面积4403km2(约占海南岛的七分之一)。五指山、鹦哥岭、霸王岭、黎母山、吊罗山等著名山体均在其范围内,被称为“海南屋脊”;南渡江、万泉河等海南主要河流均发源于此,被誉为“海南水塔”。

海南热带雨林国家公园属于全球34个生物多样性热点区之一,是海南长臂猿在全球的唯一分布地。记录到野生维管束植物3653种(国家I级重点保护6种,海南特有419种),记录到陆栖脊椎动物540种(国家I级重点保护14种,海南特有23种),生物多样性指数最高达6.28,与巴西亚马逊雨林相当。

海南热带雨林国家公园试点区建设以来,热带雨林等生态系统类群复杂的冠层垂直结构得以保持,植被冠层平均高度较非试点区高出46.8%。森林面积总体增加,生态系统功能进一步增强。试点区适宜生境面积增加,质量提升。发现新种19个,重要保护物种数量稳中有升。试点区生境质量明显提升,海南长臂猿潜在适宜生境生态系统净初级生产力增加3.72%,海南长臂猿家族群和个体数持续稳定增长,个体数量达35只,第五种群稳定形成中。自然分布的热带雨林标志树种——龙脑香科植物得到了有效保护。国家I级保护植物坡垒种群数量稳定,种群年龄结构为增长性,具增长潜势。

National Park of Hainan Tropical Rainforest, located in the central-south of Hainan Island, covers an area of 4,403 km2 (about 1/7 of Hainan Island). Within its scope are famous mountains such as Wuzhi Mountain, Yinggeling Ridge, Bawangling Mountain, Limu Mountain and Diaoluo Mountain, making it “the roof of Hainan”. It is also called the “water tower of Hainan”, for it contains the headwaters of major rivers like the Nandu River and Wanquan River.

National Park of Hainan Tropical Rainforest is one of the world’s 34 key biodiversity areas, and the only habitat of the Hainan gibbon. It has recorded 3,653 species of wild vascular plants (6 national level-one protected species and 419 Hainan endemic species) and 540 species of terrestrial vertebrates (15 national level-one protected species and 23 Hainan endemic species). Its biodiversity index is as high as 6.28, equal to Brazil’s Amazon rainforest.

Thanks to the construction of the pilot area of the National Park of Hainan Tropical Rainforest and other ecosystems with complex vertical structure are well-conserved, and the average canopy height is 46.8% higher than non-pilot areas. The overall forest area has increased and the ecosystem function has been further amplified. The coverage of suitable habitats in the pilot area has expanded and the quality improved. Nineteen new species have been discovered, and the number of important protected species grows steadily. The quality of the suitable habitats in the pilot area has significantly improved. Net primary productivity of the potentially suitable habitats for Hainan gibbons increased by 3.72%. The number of Hainan gibbon groups and individuals continue to grow steadily, with individuals reaching 35 and the fifth group steadily taking shape. Dipterocarpaceae plants—naturally distributed iconic tree species of rainforest—have been effectively protected. The population of Hopea hainanensis Merr. et Chun—a level-one protected plant—remains stable, with a growth-type age structure, suggesting further growth potential of the population.